This term is Arabic for “social solidarity,” with an emphasis on group consciousness, cohesiveness, and unity. Familiar in the pre-Islamic era, the term was popularized by Ibn Khaldun in his magnum opus, The Muqaddimah. Khaldun saw asabiyah as especially strong among nomads with shared blood relations, though neither are a prerequisite for its existence in a social group. In the modern period, the term is analogous to nationalism.
David Livingstone was a Scottish explorer who arrived to South Africa in 1841 as the minister of the London Missionary Society.
He worked in the region during 8 years; then he went to Kalahari Desert discovering the lake Ngami (1849) and Zambezi River (1851). Between 1852 and 1856 he started a trip from the Atlantic Ocean until the Indian Ocean, also discovering the Zambezi waterfalls on 16th November 1855, which became named the Queen of England (Victoria Falls) by Livingstone.
He lost contact during exploration towards the Lake Tanganyika; then the newspaper New York Herald organized an aid expedition leaded by Henry Stanley who in 1871 found him in the city of Ujiji, on the shores of the city, where the famous sentence was pronounced: “Doctor Livingstone, I presume?”.
He died on 1st May 1873, in a tiny village somewhere in Zambia due to malaria and dysentery. He stood out for his fight against slavery.