He was born in Edirne, the then capital city of the Ottoman Empire state. His father was sultan Murad II (1404-51). At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople, bringing an end to the medieval Byzantine Empire. He also claimed the title of Caesar of Rome in addition to his other titles, Ottoman Sultan and Caliph, after the conquest of Constantinople. Mehmed II’s reign is also well-known for the religious tolerance with which he treated his subjects, especially among the conquered Christians, which was very unusual for Europe in the middle ages.
The Sulimaniye is a grand mosque, which was built on the order of sultan Suleyman I (the magnificent) and was constructed by the great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. The construction work began in 1550 and the mosque was finished in 1557. It is considered to be a kind of architectural answer to the byzantine Hagia Sophia. That is more symmetrical, rationalized and light-filled interpretation of earlier Ottoman examples.